In 1580, Bernard Palissy was the first man to describe the present day concept of ‘water cycle’.
He described how water evaporates from the oceans and cools to form clouds.
The clouds move inland where they rise, condense and fall as rain. This water gathers as lakes and streams and flows back to the ocean in a continuous cycle.
In the 7th century B.C., Thales of Miletus believed that surface spray of the oceans was picked up by the wind and carried inland to fall as rain.
In earlier times people did not know the source of underground water. They thought the water of the oceans, under the effect of winds, was thrust towards the interior of the continents.
They also believed that the water returned by a secret passage, or the Great Abyss.
This passage is connected to the oceans and has been called the ‘Tartarus’, since Plato’s time.
Even Descartes, a great thinker of the eighteenth century, subscribed to this view.
Till the nineteenth century, Aristotle’s theory was prevalent.
According to this theory, water was condensed in cool mountain caverns and formed underground lakes that fed springs. Today, we know that the rainwater that seeps into the cracks of the ground is responsible for this. The water cycle is described by the Qur’aan in the following verses: “Seest thou not that Allah Sends down rain from The sky, and leads it Through springs in the earth? Then He causes to grow, Therewith, produce of various Colours.” [Al-Qur’aan 39:21]
“He sends down rain From the sky And with it gives life to The earth after it is dead: Verily in that are Signs For those who are wise.” [AlQur’aan 30:24]
“And We send down water From the sky according to (Due) measure, and We cause it To soak in the soil; And We certainly are able To drain it off (with ease).” [Al-Qur’aan 23:18]
Aabyat Aabi chakkar
Ye 1580ء ki bat hai jab Bernard palissy ne aaj ke Aabi chakkar ke tasawwur ka pehli bar xikr kiya tha-.
Usne btaya tha ki pani kis tarha bukharat ban Kar smundar se uthta hai aor phir thanda hokr badlon ki shakal ikhtiyar Kar leta hai.
Ye badal fixa me buland hokar kaseef shakal ikhtiyar Kar ke barish ki surat mein xameen par baraste hain-
Yahi pani jheelon nadyon ki shakal mein jama hojata hai aor phir wapis Samundar mein lot jata hai.
Yun ek musalsal Aabi chakkar wajood me ata hai satwi sadi eiswi (ساتویں صدی عیسوی) mein “Thales of Miletus” ne ye naxarya pesh kiya ke hwayn Samundaron ke pani ko uthay phirti hain aor phir yahi pani barish ki shakal mein baras jata hai.
Purane xamane mein logo ko ye ilm nahin tha ke xere – xameen pani kahan se aata hai. Inka khyal tha ke samundaron ka pani hawaoun ke xere-asar xameen ke andar dhans jata hai.
Inka ye khyal bhi tha ke yahi pani kisi khufiya raste se ya gehri Khaleej ke raste samundaron mein chla jata tha .
Ye rasta samundaron se Juda huwa tha aor ise aflatoon ke ahd (عہد) mein tartarus kehte the.
Atharwi sadi ke axeem mufkar “Descartes “ ne bhi is naxarye se ittifaq kiya tha_
Phir uneeswi sadi aai aor abtak Aristotle ka naxarya rayj tha.
Is naxarye k mutabiq pani thandi koh-staani gharon Mein kaseef shakal ikhtiyar Kar leta tha phir ye xere xameen jheelon mein chla jata tha..
Jahan se chashme phoot-te they Aaj hame ye maloom.
Huwa ke barish ka woh pani jo xameen ki daradon ke xarye xere xameen chla jata hai.
Woh Iska sabab Banta hai.
Iska xikr Quran Hakeem ki darj-xeyl aayt mein Yun aaya hai.
“kiya Apne nahin dekha k Allah tala aasman se pani utara hai aor use xameen ke saton me pohnchata hai phir isi ke xarye se mukhtalif qism ki khetyan ugata hai phir woh khushk hojati hain aor aap inhen xard rang dekhte hain phir inhen rexa rexa kardeta hai. Isme aqlmandon ke liye bohat xeyadah nasihat hai (AL Quran 39:21)
“aor uski nishanyon mein se ek yebhi hai ki woh tumhe darane aor ummeedwar banane ke liye bijliyan dikhata hai aor aasman se barish barsata hai aor isse Murda xameen ko xinda kardeta hai isme bhi aqlmandon ke liye boht si nishanya hain” (AL Quran 23:18)
aaj se 1438 baras qabal ki koi aor kitab Aabi chakkar ki is qadar sahi sahi tafseel pesh nahin krti..